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如何使用低成本单片机驱动单绕组单相无刷直流电机

2015-03-07 15:36:01     来源:Microchip Technology Inc.        

【DABITEDAODU】DUIYUDIGONGHAODIANJIYINGYONG,CHENGBENBIFUZAXINGGENGWEIZHONGYAO,BINGQIEDUIZHUANJUDEYAOQIUJIAODI,YINCIDANXIANGWUSHUAZHILIU(BLDC)DIANJISHISANXIANGDIANJIBUCUODETIDAIFANGAN。

对于低功耗电机应用,成本比复杂性更为重要,并且对转矩的要求较低,因此单相无刷直流(BLDC)电机是三相电机不错的替代方案。

CILEIDIANJIJIEGOUJIANDAN,YIYUZHIZAO,YINCICHENGBENJIAODI。CIWAI,TAZHIXUYAOSHIYONGDANWEIZHICHUANGANQIHEYIXIEQUDONGQIKAIGUANJIKEKONGZHIDIANJIRAOZUBINGWEIQIGONGDIAN。YINCI,KEYIQINGSONGDIZAIDIANJIHEKONGZHIYONGDIANZIYUANQIJIANZHIJIANZUOCHUQUANHENG。WEIBAOCHICHENGBENXIAOYI,XUYAOSHIYONGDICHENGBENDEDIANJIQUDONGQI。

BENWENJIESHAODEQUDONGQIDIANLUHUILIYONGLIANGGEFANKUIHUILU。YIGESHINEICENGHUILU,FUZEKONGZHIHUANXIANG;LINGYIGESHIWAICENGHUILU,FUZEKONGZHIZHUANSU。DIANJIZHUANSUYIWAIBUMONIDIANYAZUOWEICANKAO,ERQIEHUIJIANCECHUGUOLIUHEGUOWENGUZHANG。

TU1XIANSHILEJIYUMicrochipDE8WEIDANPIANJIPIC16F1613DEDANXIANGQUDONGQI。XUANZEZHEIKUANSHIYINWEIQIYINJIAOSHUJIAOSHAO,BINGQIEPIANSHANGWAISHEKEYIKONGZHIQUDONGQIKAIGUAN、CELIANGDIANJIZHUANSU、YUCEZHUANZIWEIZHIYIJISHIXIANGUZHANGJIANCE。BENYINGYONGSHIYONGYIXIAWAISHE:HUBUBOXINGFASHENGQI(CWG)、XINHAOCELIANGDINGSHIQI(SMT)、MOSHUZHUANHUANQI(ADC)、SHUMOZHUANHUANQI(DAC)、BUZHUO/BIJIAO/MAIKUANDIAOZHI(CCP)、GUDINGCANKAODIANYA(FVR)、DINGSHIQI、BIJIAOQIHEWENDUZHISHIQI。SHANGSHUWAISHETONGGUOGUJIANZAINEIBUJINXINGLIANJIE,YINCIKEJIANSHAOSUOXUDEWAIBUYINJIAOSHU。

w88优德注册TU1:DANXIANGBLDCQUDONGQIKUANGTU

全桥电路为电机绕组供电,且由CWG输出进行控制。霍尔传感器用于确定转子位置。流过电机绕组的电流通过检测电阻Rshunt转换为电压,从而实现过流保护。转速以外部模拟输入作为参考。图2显示了电机驱动器控制框图;对于本应用,电机额定电压为25V,额定转速为2400转/分钟。电机驱动器电源电压为9V。参考转速可以是任一模拟输入。单片机的ADC模块具有10位分辨率以及最多8个通道,因此适用于各类模拟输入。ADC模块用于提供参考转速和初始PWM占空比,从而根据参考转速源对电机转速进行初始化。

TU2:DIANJIQUDONGQIKONGZHIKUANGTU

CHUSHIZHANKONGBIKEGENJUBILIJIFEN(PI)KONGZHIQIDEJIEGUOYIJICCPZHONGJIAZAIDEXINZHANKONGBIZHIJINXINGZENGJIAN,XIANGYINGDEPWMSHUCHUYONGZUOCWGDECHUSHIYUANYIKONGZHIQUANQIAOQUDONGQIXIAQIAOBEIKAIGUANDEDIAOZHI,CONGERKONGZHIDIANJIZHUANSU。

内层回路

w88优德注册NEICENGFANKUIHUILUFUZEKONGZHIHUANXIANG。CWGSHUCHUYONGYUKONGZHIDINGZIRAOZUDEJILI,TAQUJUEYUHUOERCHUANGANQISHUCHUDEZHUANGTAI(HUOERCHUANGANQISHUCHUJIANGTONGGUOBIJIAOQIYUFVRJINXINGBIJIAO)。JIANGSHINENGBIJIAOQICHIZHI,YIPINGBICHUANGANQISHUCHUZHONGDEZAOSHENG。BIJIAOQISHUCHUKEZAIZHENGXIANGQUANQIAOMOSHIYUFANXIANGQUANQIAOMOSHIZHIJIANQIEHUAN,CONGERSHIDIANJISHIXIANSHUNSHIZHENHUONISHIZHENXUANZHUAN。CWGSHUCHUJIANGKUIRUQUANQIAODIANLUDEKAIGUANDESHURU。YAOSHENGCHENGYIGEDIANQIZHOUQI,BIXUZHIXINGYICIZHENGFANXIANGZUHE。DIANJIJIXIEXUANZHUANYIZHOUXUYAOLIANGGEDIANQIZHOUQI,YINCIBIXUZHIXINGLIANGCIZHENGFANXIANGZUHEDIANJICAINENGWANCHENGYICISHUNSHIZHENXUANZHUAN。

全桥电路

TU3SUOSHIDEQUANQIAODIANLUZHUYAOYOULIANGGEPGOUDAOMOSFET(YONGZUOSHANGQIAOBEIKAIGUAN)HELIANGGENGOUDAOMOSFET(YONGZUOXIAQIAOBEIKAIGUAN)ZUCHENG。PGOUDAOJINGTIGUANDEZHUYAOYOUSHIZAIYUKEYIZAISHANGQIAOBEIKAIGUANWEIZHIQINGSONGSHIXIANZHAJIQUDONG,CONGERJIANGDISHANGQIAOBEIZHAJIQUDONGDIANLUDECHENGBEN。SUIRANSHANGQIAOBEIKAIGUANHEXIAQIAOBEIKAIGUANKETONGSHIKAIGUAN(KUADAO),DANYINGBIMIANZHEIZHONGKAIGUANCAOZUO,FOUZEJIANGCHANSHENGZHITONGDIANLIU,DAOZHIQUDONGQIYUANJIANSUNHUAI。WEIBIMIANZHEIZHONGCAOZUO,KESHIYONGCWGDEJISHUQIJICUNQILAISHIXIANSIQUYANSHI。ZHEIYANGKEBIMIANSHUCHUXINHAOFASHENGZHONGDIE,JIERFANGZHISHANGQIAOBEIHEXIAQIAOBEITONGSHIDAOTONG。LIXIANGQINGKUANGXIA,NGOUDAOMOSFETHEPGOUDAOMOSFETYINGJUYOUXIANGTONGDEDAOTONGDIANZU(RDSon)HEZONGZHAJIDIANHEQG,YIBIANHUODEZUIJIADEKAIGUANTEXING。YINCI,ZUIHAOXUANZEYIDUIHUBUDEMOSFETLAIPIPEISHANGSHUCANSHU。DANSHIJISHANG,YOUYUHUBUMOSFETDEJIEGOUBUTONG,WUFADADAOCIYAOQIU;PGOUDAOQIJIANDEXINPIANCHICUNBIXUSHINGOUDAOQIJIANDE2DAO3BEICAINENGPIPEIRDSonXINGNENG。DANSHI,XINPIANCHICUNYUEDA,QGDEYINGXIANGYEYUEDA。YINCI,XUANZEMOSFETSHI,WUBIXIANQUEDINGRDSonHEQGERZHEZHONGNAGEDUIKAIGUANXINGNENGDEYINGXIANGGENGDA,RANHOUZAIXIANGYINGDIJINXINGXUANZE。

故障检测

RUOZHUANJUFUZAICHAOCHUYUNXUDEDIANJIZHUANJUFUZAIZUIDAZHI,KENENGHUIDAOZHIDIANJITINGZHUAN,CONGERSHIQUANBUDIANLIULIUGUORAOZU。YINCI,WEIBAOHUDIANJI,BIXUSHIXIANGUOLIUHETINGZHUANGUZHANGJIANCE。YAOSHIXIANGUOLIUJIANCE,KEZAIQUDONGDIANLUZHONGTIANJIARshunt,GAIDIANZUHUIGENJULIUGUODIANJIRAOZUDEDIANLIUTIGONGXIANGYINGDEDIANYA。DIANZULIANGDUANDEYAJIANGSUIDIANJIDIANLIUXIANXINGBIANHUA。GAIDIANYAJIANGKUIRUBIJIAOQIDEFANXIANGSHURUBINGYUCANKAODIANYAJINXINGBIJIAO,CANKAODIANYAJIYURshuntDIANZUYUYUNXUDEDIANJITINGZHUANDIANLIUZUIDAZHIZHIJI。CANKAODIANYAKEYOUFVRTIGONG,BINGKETONGGUODACJINYIBUSUOXIAO。ZHEIYANGBIANKEYISHIYONGFEICHANGXIAODECANKAODIANYA,CONGERJIANGDIANZUBAOCHIZAIJIAODISHUIPING,JINERJIANGDIRshuntDEGONGHAO。RUGUORshuntDIANYACHAOCHUCANKAODIANYA,BIJIAOQISHUCHUHUICHUFACWGDEZIDONGGUANDUANGONGNENG,BINGQIEZHIYAOGUZHANGCUNZAI,CWGDESHUCHUBIANHUIBAOCHIWUXIAOZHUANGTAI。GUOWENGUZHANGKETONGGUOQIJIANDEPIANSHANGWENDUZHISHIQIJINXINGJIANCE,WENDUZHISHIQIDECELIANGFANWEIWEI-40˚CZHI+85˚C。ZHISHIQIDENEIBUDIANLUHUISUIZHEWENDUDEBUTONGERCHANSHENGBUTONGDEDIANYA,RANHOUTONGGUOADCJIANGCIDIANYAZHUANHUANWEISHUZILIANG。WEITIGAOWENDUZHISHIQIDEJINGQUEDU,KESHISHIDANDIANXIAOZHUN。

TU3:DANXIANGBLDCDIANJIQUDONGQIYUANLITU

外层回路

TU2ZHONGSUOSHIDEWAICENGHUILUYONGYUKONGZHIDIANJIZAIBUTONGTIAOJIANXIADEZHUANSU,LIRUFUZAIXUQIU、GANRAOHEWENDUPIAOYIBIANHUADENG。ZHUANSUYOUSMTCELIANG。SMTSHIYIKUANJUYOUSHIZHONGHEMENKONGLUOJIDE24WEIJISHUDINGSHIQI,JINGPEIZHIKEYONGYUCELIANGDUOZHONGSHUZIXINHAOCANSHU,RUMAICHONGKUANDU、PINLV、ZHANKONGBIYIJILIANGSHURUXINHAOBIANYANZHIJIANDESHIJIANCHA。KETONGGUOSMTDEZHOUQIHEZHANKONGBICAIJIMOSHICELIANGDIANJIDESHUCHUPINLV。ZAICIMOSHIXIA,SMTXINHAODEZHANKONGBIHUOZHOUQIDOUKEJIYUSMTSHIZHONGJINXINGCAIJI。SMTHUIJISUANDANGEDIANJIXUANZHUANZHOUQINEIDESMTSHIZHONGSHU,RANHOUJIANGJIEGUOCUNCHUYUBUZHUOZHOUQIJICUNQIZHONG。SHIYONGGAIJICUNQIKEHUODEDIANJIDESHIJIPINLV。JIANGSHIJIZHUANSUYUCANKAOZHUANSUJINXINGBIJIAOSHI,RUGUOSHIJIZHUANSUGAOYUSHEDINGDECANKAOZHUANSU,ZECHANSHENGZHENGWUCHA;RUGUOSHIJIZHUANSUDIYUSHEDINGDECANKAOZHUANSU,ZECHANSHENGFUWUCHA。CIWUCHAHUIKUIRUPIKONGZHIQI。PIKONGZHIQISHIYIZHONGGUJIANSUANFA,YONGYUJISUANZHUANSUPIANCHADEBUCHANGZHI。ZAICHUSHIPWMZHANKONGBIDEJICHUSHANGJIAJIANCIBUCHANGZHIKEDEDAOXINDEZHANKONGBIZHI。

结论

在成本敏感型电机控制w88优德注册应用中,高效而灵活的单片机可大显身手。器件效率可针对外设集成度进行测量,从而优化控制任务、引脚和存储器数量以及封装尺寸。此外,如果需要不同的设计,易用性和上市时间也会显得尤为重要。本文介绍了低成本单片机如何满足上述需求,以及如何通过驱动器设置所需的参考转速、预测转子位置、实现控制算法、测量电机实际转速以及执行故障检测。

声明:转载此文是出于传递更多信息之目的。若有来源标注错误或侵犯了您的合法权益,请与我

们联系,我们将及时更正、删除,谢谢。

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